Treaty of Hartford (1665 Copy)

Covenants and Agreements made between the English Inhabitants within the Jurisdiction for the River of Connecticut of the One Part and Miantonimo, the Chief Sachem of the Narragansetts in the Behalf of Himself and Other the Sachems There and Poquiam or Uncas, the Chief Sachem of the Indians Called the Mohegans. in the Behalf of Himself and Other the Sachems under Him as Followeth:
Imprimis,1  There is a peace and familiarity made between the said Miantonomo and Narraganset Indians, and the said Poquiam and the said Mohegan Indians and all former injuries and wrongs offered each to other remitted and buried and never to be revived any more from henceforth.
It is agreed if there fall out injuries or wrongs for future to be done or committed each to other or their men they shall not presently revenge it but they are to appeal to the said English and they are to decide the same and the determination of the English to stand, and they are each to do as is by the said English set down, and if the one or the other shall refuse to do, it shall be lawful for the English to compel them and to side and take part if they see cause against the obstinate or refusing party.
It is agreed that they shall not enter into one or other’s bounds or countries without consent, either to hunt or fish or the like, neither shall steal or take away one or other’s corn nor rob nor steal one from another either skins, wampum, beaver or the like or burn or spoil one or other’s wigwams.
Item:2 There is a conclusion of peace and friendship made between the said Miantonimo and the said Narragansetts and the said Poquiam and the said Mohegans as long as they carry themselves orderly and give no just cause of offence and that they nor either of them do shelter any that may be enemies to the English that shall or formerly have had hand in murdering or killing any English man or woman or consented thereunto.
That they nor either of them nor their men nor dogs nor traps shall kill nor spoil or hurt any of Englis men's hogs, swine, or cattle, and if any of the Englishmen's cattle shall stray in their or either countries and they come to know thereof, they shall not kill or spoil them but shall speedily give notice thereof to the English or else bring them to the English and the English shall give them recompense for their pains.
Item: It is agreed that if they or either of them shall know or hear of any evil or mischief intended against the English, they shall duly give notice thereof to the English governors and apprehend or take any such if they can, that intend hurt to the English and bring them to the English.
Item: If any Englishman's boat, pinnace, or ship shall suffer any wreck upon any of their coasts or any English goods or men be cast upon their shores, they, either of them, shall preserve the same and give notice thereof to the English and they shall have for their pains.
They, or either of them, shall, as soon as they can, either bring the chief sachems of our late enemies the Pequots that had the chief hand in killing the English to the said English or take of their heads as also for those murderers that are now agreed upon amongst us that are living, they shall as soon as they can possibly take of their heads if they be in their custody or else whensoever they or any of them shall come amongst them or to their wigwams or anywhere if they can by any means come by them
[ bottom of folio torn at fold ]3
Neither shall the Narragansetts nor Mohegans poses any part of the Pequots' country without leave from the English always expected the English captives are forthwith to be delivered to the English such as belong to Connecticut to the sachems there and such as belong to the Massachusetts to the sachems there.
Item: The said agreements are to be kept inviolable by the parties abovesaid and if any make breach of them, the other two may join and make war upon such as shall break the same, unless satisfaction be made, being reasonably and required.
John Haynes
The mark of Minatonimo
The mark of Poquiam alias Uncas
At Hartford, September 21, 1638
[ bottom of folio torn at fold ]
Extracted out of the original and examined this May 25, 1665, per Daniel Clark, Secretary to Connecticut Corporation
5 7 6


  • 1.  Latin, In the first place
  • 2. Latin, likewise, moreover
  • 3. Editorial Note: Provisions 9-12, presumably written under the fold at the bottom, are missing from the document. 
  • 4. This paragraph most likely is the 12th provision of part of it.
  • 5. Deleted Text: 6
  • 6. The treaty begins on the seventh folio of the Landsdowne Ms 1052.