Articles of Agreement between Theophilus Eaton, John Davenport, and Others, and Montowese, son of an Indian sachem living at Mattabesec
Articles of Agreement betwixt Theophilus Eaton, John Davenport, and Sundry other English Planters at Quinnipiac on the one part, and Montowese , son of an Indian sachem living at Mattabesic, and nephew to Sequin on the other part, made and concluded the 11th day of December 1638.
First, the said Montowese, in presence and with allowance and consent of Sawseunck, an Indian which came in company with him, doth profess, affirm, and covenant, to and with the said Theophilus Eaton, John Davenport, and others above, that the land on both sides the river of Quinnipiac from the Northerly bounds of the land lately purchased by the said English of the Quinnipiac Indians, namely from the pond in the great meadow, about two miles above the great hill, to the head of the river at the great plain toward the plantations settled by the English upon the river of Connecticut southerly, which is about ten miles in length from north to south, the bounds of which land runs also eight miles easterly from the river of Quinnipiac toward the river of Connecticut, and five miles westerly towards Hudson's River, doth truly and solely belong to him, the said Montowese, in right of his deceased mother, to whom the said land did appertain, and from whom it justly descends upon him as his inheritance, so that he hath an absolute and independent power to give, alien, dispose, or sell all or any part of the said land, as he shall think good; and that neither his said father, nor any other person whatsoever, have any right, title or interest in any part of the land described and limited as above, whereby he or any other may hereafter justly question what the said Montowese now doth, or lay any claim to any part of the said land now disposed of by him.
Secondly, the said Montowese, being fully acquainted with the agreements lately passed betwixt the said English planters and the sachem of Quinnipiac, his council and company, did freely, of his own accord, upon full and serious deliberation, give, grant and yield up all his right, title and interest to all the land mentioned and bounded as above, with all the rivers, ponds, trees, and all liberties and appurtenances whatsoever belonging to the same, to the said Theophilus Eaton, John Davenport, and other English planters att Quinnipiac, and to their heirs and assigns forever, desiring from them, the said English planters, to receive such a small portion of land by the river's side about two miles beyond the tree over the river, in the passage from hence towards the towns at Connecticut, as may be sufficient for his small company, being but ten men in number, besides women and children, which portion of land they desire may hereafter, upon a view, be assigned, appointed and limited unto them by the said English planters, reserving also to himself and his fore-named company, liberty in fit seasons and due manner without prejudice to the English, to hunt, and fish, and kill beaver, yet therein also to be regulated by the said English upon discovery of any annoyance, as the Quinnipiac Indians are in that case.
Lastly, the said Theophilus Eaton, John Davenport, etc., accepting from Montowese this free gift of his hand as above, do by way of thankful retribution, give unto him eleven coats made of trucking cloth, and one coat for himself of English cloth, made up after the English manner, which being thankfully accepted by the said Montowese, and the agreements in all points perfected, for ratification, and full confirmation of the same, Montowese and Sawseunck have hereunto set their hands or marks the day and there before written.
Montowese, his mark
Sawseunck, his mark
Interpreter: I, John Clark, being interpreter in this treaty, do hereby profess in the presence of God that I have fully acquainted the Indians with the substance of every article, to the which they have freely agreed, that is to say that Montowese have given to Mr. Davenport and Mr. Eaton all his land which he had by his deceased mother, which he saith is from the head of the great plain to the pond which he profess to be his, and promise to make it good to or English, and for this he is satisfied with twelve coats, only reserve a piece of land by the river for his men which are ten and many squaws, to plant in, and when our cows come there what harm their dogs do to our cattle, they will satisfy for, and we for what harm or hogs do to them in corn, and as for hunting and fishing, to be free to them as ourselves, provided or cattle suffer not by them, and with these particulars they are acquainted, and do freely consent to them, as their mark witness, the truth of which, if lawfully called, I shall readily confirm by my oath at any time, Per me, John Clarke
Notation: We, Robert Cogswell, Roger Knapp, and James Love, do hereby renounce all right to any and every part of the fore-mentioned land. Witness our hands hereunto, Robert Cogswell, James Love, Roger Knapp, his mark
 This treaty was signed two weeks after Momaguin, sachem of the larger Quinnipiac community directly south of Monotowese's village. Montowese was the sachem of the Northern Quinnipiacs. Articles of Agreement between Theophilus Eaton, John Davenport, and Others and Momaugin, Sugcogsin, Quesaquauch, Caroughood, and Wesaucucke, 1646.11.24.00.
 Sawseunck was a Wangunk diplomat.
 Montowese's community, like many other Indian communities in Southern New England, was affected by a series of epidemics brought on by contact with European traders, explorers, and settlers. It is estimated that by 1635, up to 90% of the populations did not survive. Explanations of the diseases range from yellow fever, smallpox, chickenpox, and leptospirosis complicated by Well syndrome. John S. Marr and John T. Cathey, "New Hypothesis for Cause of Epidemic among Native Americans, New England, 1616–1619, Emerging Infectious Diseases (February 2010) 16, no. 2: 281-286.
 The exact location of this reservation is uncertain. Menta estimates that is was in near the current New Haven-North Haven line. Menta, The Quinnipiac, 89-91.
 This notation suggests that these three adventurers may have had some prior arrangement with Montowese foir the same land. Menta, The Quinnipiac, 91.